Back to the above illustration ...
Terriers from the 1860 Book of Field Sports by Henry Downes Miles, is Illustrated by DJ Watkins-Pitchford, are pictured running freely together.
The Skye Terrier, The Scotch Terrier, The English Smooth Terrier, The Crossed Scotch Terrier, The Dandie Dinmont and The Bull Terrier.
Two of the 6 dogs pictured are parti colored ...
It would be very likely that the parti gene (and other genes for color) remaid hidden in some of our yorkies over many, many generations. This gene has gone unnoticed for so many years because two dogs bred together have to carry the gene in order for the color to be produced. Each dog who carriers the recessive gene and breeds on, passes his recessive gene onto 50% of his offspring.
The Inheritance of COAT COLOR in DOGS, talks about early off colors found in the Scottish Terriers (descendants of the Scotch terriers, Scotch terriers also part of the early Yorkie history) - http://www.scotties.com/coatcolor.html
Captain W.W. Mackie's 1870s Travel Diary in Search of the Old Time "Scotch Terriers" - notes white markings seen on Scotch terriers - http://www.tartanscottie.com/captain_mackie_scottie_diary.htm
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History of the Yorkshire Terrier
by Sue White
There are several opinions on how the modern Yorkshire Terrier came to be. Even though there are NO actual breeding records of the earliest relatives of the Yorkie, it's widely believed that the breed is estimated to be just over 100 or so years old. The Yorkshire Terrier is a "human-made" breed, exactly what dogs were used in its creation remains largely a matter of speculation since no breeding records were kept and the Yorkshire area contained many popular toy and terrier type dogs that could have been used for crossbreeding.
Before 1750, most British people worked in agriculture and lived in small communities which grew up around factories and mines. When the Industrial Revolution came along, many changes came to family life. People moved closer to the cities seeking work and a better way of life. These people brought with them the Paisley Terrier; who were mainly working dogs used to catch rats and other small animals to supplement their poor owner’s diet. The Paisley Terrier, also known as the Clydesdale Terrier, was then crossed with other types of Terriers, like the English Black Terrier, the Tan Toy Terrier and the Skye Terrier. It is believed by many, that the Maltese was crossed with these dogs to produce long, soft coats and a smaller stature. You can see the similarity in shape between the Maltese and today's Yorkies. There are no records about the early pedigrees to confirm these crosses, since most of these dogs masters had a low level of literacy which led to very poor record keeping. It is believed that the above dogs are the most likely types of breed crosses, used to produce the Yorkshire terrier breed.
Some of the earliest documented records of how the breed began was written by Mr. Ed. Bootman of Halifax, England. His information was furnished in an article on the origin of the Yorkshire Terrier breed, for publication in the "English Shopkeeper" in 1887. In his article he states, "Feeling the importance of all facts relating to the origin of the breed," it's published as follows: "Swift's Old Crab, a cross-bred Scotch Terrier, Kershaw's Kitty, a Skye, and an Old English Terrier bitch kept by J. Whittam, then residing in Hatter's Fold, Halifax, were in the zenith of their fame forty years ago. The owner of Old Crab was a native of Halifax, and a joiner by trade. He worked at Oldham for some time as a journeyman and then moved to Manchester, where he kept a public house. Whether he got Crab at Oldham or Manchester I have not been able to ascertain. He had him when in Manchester, and from there sent him several times to Halifax on a visit to Kitty.
Crab was a dog of about eight or nine lbs. weight with a good Terrier head and eye, but with a long body, resembling the Scotch Terrier. The legs and muzzle only were tanned, and the hair on the body would be about three or four inches in length. He has stood for years in a case in a room at the Westgate Hotel, a public house which his owner kept when he returned to his native town, where, I believe, the dog may be seen today." "Kitty was a bitch different in type from Crab. She was a drop-eared Skye, with plenty of coat of a blue shade, but destitute of tan on any part of the body. Like Crab, she had no pedigree. She was originally stolen from Manchester and sent to a man names Jackson, a saddler in Huddersfield, who, when it became known that a five pound reward was offered in Manchester for her recovery, sent her to a person names Harrison, then a waiter at the White Swan Hotel, Halifax, to escape detection, and from Harrison she passed into the hand of Mr. J. Kershaw of Beshop Blaise, a public house which once stood on the Old North Bridge, Halifax. Prior to 1851 Kitty had six litters, all of which were by Crab. In these six litters she had thirty-six puppies, twenty-eight of which were dogs, and served to stock the district with rising sires." "After 1851, when she passed into the possession of Mr. F. Jagger, she had forty-four puppies, making a total of eighty.
"Mr. Whittam's bitch, whose name I cannot get to know, was an Old English Terrier, with tanned head, ears and legs, and a sort of grizzle back. She was built on the lines of speed. Like the others, she had no pedigree. She was sent to the late Bernard Hartley of Allen Gate, Halifax by a friend residing in Scotland. When Mr. Hartley had got tired of her, he gave her to his coachman, Mason, who, in turn, gave her to his friend Whittam, and Whittam used her years for breeding purposes. Although this bitch came from Scotland, it is believed the parents were from this district."
Most of the historic information on how this breed began, was passed on by word of mouth and in many cases, they were opinions of the story tellers and writers.
ay color also can vary from light to dark, but it will always, always have BLACK HAIR at birth!!!!
History and other information of the AKC registered Parti Yorkie coloring and the Gold coloring.
Hi, I wanted to add some information and pictures to help those that have questions on the 'new' colors that we are now seeing in the AKC registered Yorkshire Terriers.
By Debra Sima
These colors actually are not 'new' colors, they were just the colors that some (all?) of the foundations dogs were or carried silently in their recessive unexpressed genes that the founders of the breed did not want in the 'standard' show look (the standard show qualities have and do change periodically depending on the current 'ideal' look) that they were striving to create. When they did show up, they were culled. Culling can mean put to death, sold as a non-breeding pet or even registered under a 'standard' acceptable color (sometimes a descriptive word in the name such as Gold, will tell you of the true color). Once the AKC (American Kennel Club) had DNA testing available, about 42 litters of Partis were DNA tested and the AKC investigated the older breeders and their findings say that the Parti Yorkie is a Pure Yorkshire Terrier. So rest assured that if you deal with a reputable breeder, such as myself, your puppy is a purebred Yorkshire Terrier no matter if the actual color may be a Traditional, a Parti or a Gold.
The AKC still requires that each Parti or Gold be registered in a special way. One needs to send in pictures to prove the coloring and that it looks like a Yorkshire Terrier. So each of these puppies/dogs are judged on a case by case basis. No other Yorkshire Terrier is required to go through this kind of examination/testing to prove that it is indeed a Yorkie and deserving to be registered! Only for wanting to be a Champion does a 'Standard' Colored Yorkie go through a Judging process. This again shows that these 'rare' Yorkie Colors are being closely watched which should help the quality to only go up.
The Parti color and the Gold color come from recessive genes from the foundation stock. So, a recessive gene can pass from generation to generation with out being expressed until a mating to another dog that carries the same recessive color gene. Then the color can be expressed! This has actually happened in many show lines since show breeders are more apt to line breed and inbreed their dogs to get the desired qualities in their show dogs that they want. Yes, there has been even an AKC Champion that has produced the Parti color and many Champions that have passed on the Parti gene going by pedigrees!
The following is the current acceptable way that the Parti color is inherited
If you breed a Parti colored Yorkie to a Parti colored Yorkie, you will get ALL Parti colored puppies!
If you breed a Parti colored Yorkie to a Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkie (may have varying amounts of white markings on them), you should get an avg. of 50% Parti colored puppies and 50% Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkie puppies with varying amounts of white on them.
If you breed a Parti colored Yorkie to a Standard colored Yorkie, you will get ALL Parti Carrier Tradional colored puppies! These will have varying amounts of white on them!
If you breed a Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkie to a Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkie (again they can have varying amounts of white on them), you should get an avg. of 25% standard colored Yorkies, 50% Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkies (with varying amounts of white on them) and 25% will be Parti colored Yorkie puppies!
If you breed a Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkie to a Standard colored Yorkie, you should get an avg. of 50% standard colored Yorkies and 50% Parti Carrier Traditional colored Yorkies (with varying amounts of white on them)!For me, life is too short to worry about the color of my dog! If you enjoy the color, then that is what counts! The Parti and the Gold may never again be showable in AKC conformation Shows (I have come across an AKC Champion that has GOLD as it's color, that dog is CH. Pretorius' Dandy Sensation TA764014 12-72 GOLD), but then again, since so many people are now concerned about keeping these rare colors alive and well, we may yet see the Parti and the Golds in the AKC show ring! Other dog shows under a different registry are accepting the Parti Colored Yorkies to be shown, even to their Championship! So, I personally will keep my hope alive that one day, these specially Colored Yorkies will be allowed to take their rightful place, not only in our homes, but also in the show ring!
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How Parti Yorkies Came to Be ...
by Sue White
Many skeptical Yorkie owners and breeders, absolutely refuse to believe that the Parti colored Yorkie is anything other than a recent "behind the kennel bred" mutt. They say: "There is NO white gene in our Purebred Yorkies" or "There is NO record of any Yorkie ever breeding to a white or parti colored dog" or "No show breeder who's been breeding and showing for 30 or 40 years, has ever produced a parti colored Yorkie." I'm going to try to educate people on color genetics, recessive genes and how the Parti gene remained hidden in the Yorkshire terrier breed for years.
We know from our Yorkie history, that early records were not kept on the foundation breeding stock. I seriously doubt, that back in the days where spaying and neutering was not done, that the farmers and working class families didn't have the "occasional" unplanned pregnancy in their canines. If anything, it happened more then, than it does today. History also notes that the Maltese was bred to the Yorkshire terrier to enhance the texture and length of the Yorkshire terriers coat, since most of the early dogs thought to have started the breed, were broken haired dogs with shorter, coarser coats. It's documented in some of the earliest records that the foundation stock of our breed, were cross-bred dogs and dogs without pedigrees (who's heritage is unknown). Even if these dogs didn't look parti colored they could
very well have harbored the recessive Parti gene in their DNA makeup. Whether their mother/father, grandmother/grandfather or great grandmother/great grandfather ... was parti colored, no one would really know, since record keeping at that time in history, was little to none.
The Parti gene can only be expressed if a parti gene carrier is bred to another parti gene carrier. A carrier will look like a traditional colored Yorkie but is born with maybe some white on it's chin, chest and/or feet. In this case where a parti carrier is bred to another parti carrier, 25% of the offspring will be traditional Yorkies (not carrying the gene), 50% will be traditional colored Yorkies who do carry the recessive parti gene and 25% of the offspring will be actual Parti colored dogs. AKC has allowed Parti colored Yorkies to be eligible for registration since 2000. Prior to that time, parti colored offspring were normally given away without papers or destroyed (yes, destroyed). I know of several breeders who have destroyed a litter of "surprise" parti colored pups.
The most prolific known line of Parti Yorkies is the "California line" or Nikko's line. These dogs are all descendants of an AKC Champion named Nikko's Rolls Royce Ashley. Two dedicated breeders in California, fought to get this line of Parti colored Yorkies, registered by AKC. This line of Parti carriers and Parti colored Yorkies comes from a well known show breeder who's been breeding and showing for over 40 years. Forty-two litters and generations of dogs from this line were DNA'd prior to AKC's approval of registration.
The Yorkshire Terriers breed standards have changed over the years. The "Standard" color is blue and tan, any other color is considered to be "Off Standard." Until the new color disqualification rule went into effect, off standard colored, black and tan and black and gold yorkies have entered the show ring and won their champion status. Standards have changed and not only do we now have smaller sized dogs than in the late 1800's, but some of our "off standard," darker coated dogs have been allowed into the show ring.
Hopefully these types of changes along with a better understanding of color genetics, will open the door for the continued, growing acceptance of the Parti colored Yorkie. Parti Yorkies ARE RARE, they are hard to find and as supply and demand goes, they do cost more than the traditional colored Yorkie.
Parti colored Yorkies are healthy animals and they are not a genetic freak of nature as some people, groups or websites suggest. In this day of scam artists and people looking to make a fast buck, my suggestion is to buy from reputable breeders who have their dogs DNA'd and/or their dogs are from known lines of Parti producing dogs. There are other Yorkie lines of parti carriers and producers but the California line is the best known. So do your research, get references and have an open mind. This gene has been in some of our Yorkie bloodlines for years and years and years ... and if you think it's not possible, don't be surprised if one day, your own purebred Yorkie produces a pup of a different color!
Chocolate and Tan or Chocolate and Gold.
Traditional Colors are:
Blue and Tan Black and Tan
Blue and Gold Black and Gold
Means 'part White'.
The AKC DNA 42 litters when a show breeder wanted to register this color and interviewed the older top show breeders and decided that this is a registerable color!
Parti-Colors can be in any acceptable color:
Traditional Blue and Tan Parti-Color,
ee Blonde Parti-Color.
ee Blonde Chocolate Parti-Color.
AKC has accepted Gold even as Champions, so will show that color first.
Usually they DNA test as ee , but at times will test as ay.
ee will NOT have any Black hairs,
ay WILL HAVE Black hairs.
ee color can vary from very light almost White to very dark brown.
A Group of Terriers from the 19th century.
The Skye Terrier. The Scotch Terrier, The English Smooth Terrier, The Crossed Scotch Terrier, The Dandie Dinmont and The Bull Terrier. Probably terriers like these were some of the early foundation stock of the Yorkshire Terrier.
The rare colors of TAN, Parti-Colored and Chocolate are accepted by the AKC (American Kennel Club), the Premier dog registry if sent in with pictures of the dog/puppy.